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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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In addition, natural environments differ sufficiently to make sti ward technological transfers in agriculture difficult, if not irn Finally, until a few years ago, governments in less developed i showed little enthusiasm for promoting improvements and investing agricultural productivity. Instead, in an effort to diversify and devel image of the industrialized countries, they gave preference to those of the economy that are most characteristic of modernity. But the able primacy of agriculture, rooted in the need to feed rapidly growi lations, has been a brake on the progress of industrial technology, imported. Neglecting agriculture forced increasing diversion of resc the importation of food. Both the failure of the governments of de countries to establish technological priorities that conform to needs failure of developed countries to offer attractive alternatives preve expected gains of modern technology from materializing.
By holding down per capita income growth, population growth strained significant increases in the demand for nonagricultural good services that could more readily have been supplied with the adc foreign technology. This consideration must be tempered, howeve recognition that prevailing low per capita income levels themselves c a serious impediment. To rise from a national per capita income of, s per year to levels that can and do support a large number and variety and services, such as those of the United States or western Europe, even at an annual per capita income growth rate of 3 percent—tak 100 years.
A further adverse circumstance has been that nonagricultural, raw materials (e.g., ores, fuels) from low income countries have marily destined for foreign markets. Exported prior to processing, mainly for unskilled labor. Low wage rates have kept the need for r nology from becoming a pressing matter. Moreover, these sectors o tion in less developed countries have tended to be relatively insula the rest of their national economies, so that whatever new product nology develops does not easily spill over into the economy gei circumstance that is equally true for the plantation-type, export segments of agriculture. These "dual economies"—for example, ii Indonesia—have been extensively discussed in development literature
Individuals and Households-Micro Effects
In both developed and less developed areas, demographic am tended to focus on macro or social-scale implications and little effects that occur at individual or household levels. The social costs i ual or household terms of rapid population growth tend to be chroni severe; they are rarelv the stuff of nublic crisis. However  familv hll producers who must be reached and reoriented. This requires time, programs, policies, organization, division of labor, and a market economy, all of which are scarce in a develonine country.or understanding demographic-economic interrelations. It would relegate to a much more secondary position the role of diminishine returns: it would notelated collective consumption needs would stay largely unchanged for the better part of a decade, and